Part three in our Forestry Tools series deals with harvesting and the issues and tools used. If you missed the first two parts, Part One on Forestry Management or Part Two which highlighted Silviculture terms are still accessible to all.
Broad base dip – An erosion control practice for roads; a shallow depression constructed diagonally across a woods road to drain water off the road.
Buffer strip – An area of land in vegetation that is (a) located downslope from forest activities that protects from sediment runoff, especially along vulnerable water sources; or (b) used in forest aesthetics to improve the visual quality of forestry practices, such as clearcutting.
Constructed ford – A stream crossing—usually made of rocks placed across a forest road—that can be driven across when the water level is low. Culvert
Culvert – A pipe usually made of metal, PVC, or concrete that allows surface water to flow beneath roads.
Easement – A right to the use of property by another party.
Firebreak – A gap in vegetation, either natural or human-made, that may help to prevent ground fires from advancing.
Logging deck – A centralized location where harvested trees are collected, delimbed and loaded onto trucks. Logging decks need to be carefully maintained to control runoff and erosion.
Rip-rap – Rock or other large material used to protect against runoff and for erosion control.
Skid trail – A temporary, unsurfaced path used by loggers to drag cut trees from the stump to the logging deck. Skid trails need to be carefully maintained to control runoff and erosion.
Skidder – A specialty tractor that is used to haul logs out of a forest once they are cut. This tractor consists of a large grapple arm in the rear, used to bunch and drag whole trees from the woods, and pivots at its center, used to accommodate tight-turning radiuses in forest settings.
Skidding – Dragging fallen trees along the forest floor; during harvest, trees are skidded to the logging deck, where they are loaded on trucks for transport.
Stumpage – The value of standing timber in a woodlot, determined by a number of factors, including species, size and quality of trees, and market conditions.
Water Bar – A road feature consisting of a shallow channel or hump running diagonally across the road surface to divert water and prevent erosion. Water bars are often a more rudimentary method for diverting surface water, while broad base dips allow for easier crossing of vehicular traffic.